Oil imports and exports - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) (2023)

The United States was a total petroleum net exporter in 2020 and 2021

In 2021, the United States exported about 8.54 million barrels per day (b/d) and imported about 8.47 million b/d of petroleum,1 making the United States an annual total petroleum net exporter for the second year in a row since at least 1949. Total petroleum net exports were about 0.06 million b/d in 2021, and total petroleum net exports in 2020 were 0.63 million b/d. Also in 2021, the United States produced2 about 18.77 million b/d of petroleum and consumed3 about 19.89 million b/d. Even though U.S. annual total petroleum exports were greater than total petroleum imports in 2020 and 2021, the United States still imported some crude oil and petroleum products from other countries to help to supply domestic demand for petroleum and to supply international markets.

The United States remained a net crude oil importer in 2021, importing about 6.11 million b/d of crude oil and exporting about 2.96 million b/d. However, some of the crude oil that the U.S. imports is refined by U.S. refineries into petroleum products—such as gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, and jet fuel—that the U.S. exports. Also, some of imported petroleum may be stored and subsequently exported.

U.S. petroleum imports peaked in 2005

After generally increasing every year from 1954 through 2005, U.S. gross and net total petroleum imports peaked in 2005. Since 2005, increases in domestic petroleum production and increases in petroleum exports have helped to reduce annual total petroleum net imports. In 2020 and 2021, annual total petroleum net imports were actually negative, the first years since at least 1949.

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(Video) Using US Energy Information Administration (EIA) data with dataZoa (2)

Share of U.S. petroleum imports from OPEC and Persian Gulf countries has declined, while the share of imports from Canada has increased

U.S. petroleum imports rose sharply in the 1970s, especially from members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1977, when the United States exported relatively small amounts of petroleum, OPEC nations were the source of 70% of U.S. total petroleum imports and the source of 85% of U.S. crude oil imports.

Since 1977, the percentage shares of U.S. imports of total petroleum and of crude oil from OPEC have generally declined. In 2021, OPEC's share of U.S. total petroleum imports was about 11%, and its share of U.S. crude oil imports was 13%. Saudi Arabia, the largest OPEC petroleum exporter to the United States, was the source of 5% of U.S. total petroleum imports and 6% of U.S. crude oil imports. Saudi Arabia is also the largest source of U.S. petroleum imports from Persian Gulf countries. About 8% of U.S. total petroleum imports and 9% of U.S. crude oil imports were from Persian Gulf countries in 2021.

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Petroleum imports from Canada increased significantly since the 1990s, and Canada is now the largest single source of U.S. total petroleum and crude oil imports. In 2021, Canada was the source of 51% of U.S. gross total petroleum imports and 61% of gross crude oil imports.

(Video) U.S. Crude Imports Tracking Tool

  • The top five sources of U.S. total petroleum (including crude oil) imports by percentage share of total petroleum imports in 2021 were:
  • Canada51%
  • Mexico8%
  • Russia8%
  • Saudi Arabia5%
  • Colombia2%
  • The top five sources of U.S. crude oil imports by percentage share of U.S. total crude oil imports in 2021 were:
  • Canada61%
  • Mexico10%
  • Saudi Arabia6%
  • Russia3%
  • Colombia3%

did you know?

OPEC and Persian Gulf countries are not the same.

Of the 13 members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) as of January 1, 2022, five of them were Persian Gulf countries: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.

(Video) Why does US Import as well as Export Oil ? - Why does it make sense ?

The majority of U.S. total petroleum exports are petroleum liquids and refined petroleum products

Because of logistical, regulatory, and quality considerations, exporting some petroleum is the most economical way to meet the market's needs. For example, refiners in the U.S. Gulf Coast region frequently find that it makes economic sense to export some of their gasoline to Mexico rather than shipping it to the U.S. East Coast because lower cost gasoline imports from Europe may be available to the East Coast.

Petroleum liquids include hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs). HGLs exports, mainly propane, have increased substantially since 2008, and in 2021, HGLs represented about 27% of total U.S. gross petroleum exports.

  • The top five destinations of U.S. total petroleum exports (including crude oil) by percentage share of U.S. total petroleum exports in 2021 were:
  • Mexico14%
  • Canada10%
  • China7%
  • India7%
  • South Korea7%
  • The top five destinations of U.S. crude oil exports by percentage share of U.S. total crude oil exports in 2021 were:
  • India14%
  • South Korea12%
  • Canada10%
  • Netherlands10%
  • China9%

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Does the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) know which companies purchase imported crude oil or gasoline?

Although EIA cannot identify which companies sell imported gasoline or gasoline refined from imported oil, it does publish data on the companies that import petroleum into the United States. However, the fact that a company imports crude oil does not mean that those imports will be used to produce the gasoline sold to motorists as that company's brand of gasoline. Gasoline from different refineries and import terminals is often combined for shipment by pipeline. Different companies owning service stations in the same area may be purchasing gasoline at the same bulk terminal, which may or may not include imported gasoline or gasoline refined from imported oil.

(Video) EIA's International Energy Outlook 2019

1 Petroleum is a broadly defined class of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures that include crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, and products produced from refining crude oil and from processing natural gas plant liquids, including hydrocarbon gas liquids. Volumes of finished petroleum products include non-hydrocarbon compounds, such as fuel ethanol, biodiesel, additives, and detergents, that are blended into the products.

2 U.S. domestic petroleum production includes field production of crude oil and natural gas liquids, renewable fuels and oxygenate plant net production, and refinery processing gain.

3 Consumption is represented by product supplied.

Last updated: November 2, 2022, with most recent available data at the time of update.


What is EIA in oil industry? ›

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the statistical agency of the Department of Energy. It provides policy-independent data, forecasts, and analyses to promote sound policy making, efficient markets, and public understanding regarding energy, and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

Does the US government control oil imports and exports? ›

The US has both federal and individual state agencies that regulate certain aspects of oil and gas production. Neither the US Federal Government nor the individual states have established a comprehensive energy policy to manage their energy resources.

What time does EIA report oil inventory? ›

The standard release time and day of the week will be at 10:30 a.m. (Eastern time) on Wednesdays with the following exceptions. All times are Eastern.

What is EIA in oil and gas? ›

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) describes a systematic process that produces a statement on the environmental consequences of development projects to be used in guiding decision-making with several related functions.

What is an EIA and what are the three main functions of it? ›

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool used to assess the significant effects of a project or development proposal on the environment. EIAs make sure that project decision makers think about the likely effects on the environment at the earliest possible time and aim to avoid, reduce or offset those effects.

What is the difference between EIA and EPA? ›

While they are often confused with one another, they each play a different and distinct role. Put simply, environmental assessments define the environment while environmental impact assessments define the proposed activity and what effect it will have on the defined environment.

Does the US government control oil imports? ›

Today, U.S. oil, gas, and coal markets are generally free from price controls and trade restrictions, but Congress still manipulates the energy industry by tax preferences, spending subsidies, and environmental regulations.

Who controls the supply of oil in the US? ›

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the primary body that regulates oil and gas companies, although a number of other federal offices oversee specific components of the oil and gas industry. BLM regulates federal onshore lands.

Who controls oil imports in the US? ›

The Bureau of Land Management regulates federal onshore lands, and it has jurisdiction over almost all leasing, exploration, development, and production of oil and gas on federal and Native American lands.

What is the US oil reserves today? ›

Within the petroleum industry, proved crude oil reserves and lease condensate in the United States was 44.4 billion barrels (7.06×109 m3) of crude oil as of the end of 2021, excluding the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

Where is EIA mandatory? ›

Annexed projects

All projects are either classified as Annex 1 or Annex 2 projects. Those lying in Annex 1 are large scale developments such as motorways, chemical works, bridges, power stations, etc. These always require an EIA under the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (85,337,EEC as amended).

What is EIA checklist? ›

An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process used to anticipate the environmental consequences of a development before planning permission is granted. This sort of assessment is required for certain projects defined under EU regulations.

What is EIA requirement? ›

EIA procedures are designed to identify environmental problems which may be caused by a development project and determine the magnitude of change in the environment. Through this process design, location and operational changes can be introduced to minimize the adverse impacts of the development.

What are the 3 EIA benefits? ›

Reduced cost and time of project implementation. Cost-saving modifications in project design. Increased project acceptance.

What three steps are used to refine oil EIA? ›

All refineries have three basic steps:
  • Separation.
  • Conversion.
  • Treatment.

What are the 6 steps of EIA explain each briefly? ›

Key stages in the Environmental Assessment process include: screening, alternatives, preliminary assessment, scoping, mitigation, main EIA study and environmental impact statement, review and monitoring (Box 5.1 and Figure 5.1).

What are the major components of the EIA report? ›

What is the EIA Report? The EIA Report is a compilation of several important project components, including the project description, the assessment of its environmental and social impacts, mitigation measures, and related management and monitoring plans.

What is the us EIA process? ›

The EIA Process Defined

EIA is a formal process for identifying: likely effects of activities or actions on the environment, and on human health and welfare. means and measures to mitigate and monitor these impacts.

What projects require an EIA? ›

What is an Environmental Impact Assessment?
  • Motorways.
  • Large scale developments in agriculture.
  • Food industry developments.
  • Chemical industry developments.
  • Infrastructure and urban development.
Nov 26, 2020

Why is the US not producing oil? ›

The reason that U.S. oil companies haven't increased production is simple: They decided to use their billions in profits to pay dividends to their CEOs and wealthy shareholders and simply haven't chosen to invest in new oil production.

Who is us biggest oil importer? ›

  • The top five sources of U.S. crude oil imports by percentage share of U.S. total crude oil imports in 2021 were:
  • Canada61%
  • Mexico10%
  • Saudi Arabia6%
  • Russia3%
  • Colombia3%
Nov 2, 2022

Is the US an oil importer or exporter? ›

HOUSTON, Dec 19 (Reuters) - The United States has become a global crude oil exporting power over the last few years, but exports have not exceeded its imports since World War II.

Who controls 80% of the world's oil? ›

According to current estimates, 80.4% (1,241.82 billion barrels) of the world's proven oil reserves are located in OPEC Member Countries, with the bulk of OPEC oil reserves in the Middle East, amounting to 67.1% of the OPEC total.

What company is controlled over 90% of the oil in the US? ›

By 1880, Standard Oil owned or controlled 90 percent of the U.S. oil refining business, making it the first great industrial monopoly in the world. But in achieving this position, Standard violated its Ohio charter, which prohibited the company from doing business outside the state.

Who controls gas prices in America? ›

Yes, policies and legislation can certainly play a role, but gas prices are largely dictated by oil prices, and oil prices are dependent upon supply and demand. Presidential control is not as simple as what those posts suggest on social media. The year 2022 is a perfect example.

How many years of oil is left in the US? ›

Oil Reserves in the United States

This means that, without imports, there would be about 5 years of oil left (at current consumption levels and excluding unproven reserves).

Does the US have the most untapped oil? ›

Thanks to the shale oil boom, the US is now sitting on more oil reserves than Russia, which estimates as having 256 billion barrels of untapped oil. The next-richest countries in terms of oil after that are: Saud Arabia (212 billion), Canada (167 billion), Iran (143 billion) and Brazil (120 billion).

Which U.S. state has the largest oil reserves? ›

Texas houses far more proved crude oil reserves than any other U.S. state. As of 2020, there were nearly 16.7 billion barrels of crude oil reserves in Texas; the largest sources being the Eagle Ford and Permian basin.

Who is exempted from EIA? ›

A person may only be exempted from a provision in the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, requiring or regulating a public participation process, if the rights or interests of other parties are not likely to be adversely affected by the Exemption.

Who decides if an EIA is required? ›

For developments of the types listed in Schedule 2 of the EIA Regulations the requirement for EIA will be determined by the planning authority on a case by case basis (screening), unless the developer volunteers to undertake an EIA.

Which projects are exempted from EIA? ›

Exempted highway projects of strategic and defence importance: Any project which is 100 km from the Line of Control, among other locations, will be exempted from an environmental clearance before construction.

Who prepares EIA? ›

Preparation of EIA is done by consultants. Therefore, the selection criterion for the organisation is fees/cost rather than the expertise of EIA team. Two tier of EIA review, One conducted after the completion of EIA to check the adequacy and effectiveness of EIA and the second done before decision-making.

What is EIA approval and why it is necessary? ›

Essentially, an EIA is designed to identify the potential risks of a project (e.g., infrastructure development such as a dam) to environmental and human well-being and identify measures to eliminate and/or mitigate these risks. This can be done by replacing and/or modifying planned activities to reduce impacts.

Why is EIA monitoring necessary? ›

The purpose of monitoring is to compare pre- and post project conditions in the development site. It also compares the predicted and actual impacts. This is especially important in key impacts like water quality, air quality, soil fertility, endangered species, etc.

Is EIA mandatory? ›

EIA was first introduced in 1978 with regard to the various river valley projects all over the country and later expanded to include various other developmental procedures in its scope. EIA is now mandatory for over 30 classes of projects.

Do all projects require an EIA? ›

Schedule I projects always require an EIA. These include large scale projects with obvious environmental effects, such as: crude oil refineries. nuclear generating stations and other nuclear reactors.

When should an EIA be carried out? ›

When is Environmental Impact Assessment required? 'Screening' is a procedure used to determine whether a proposed project is likely to have significant effects on the environment. It should normally take place at an early stage in the design of the project.

Why is EIA important for sustainability? ›

The significance of EIA is: 1) EIA is more than technical reports, it is a means to a larger intention – the protection and improvement of the environmental quality of life. 2) EIA is a procedure to identify and evaluate the effects of activities (mainly human) on the environment - natural and social.

What is the main advantage of EIA? ›

1) It is a decision- making tool utilised to identify the environmental impacts of a project. 2) It is mandatory for projects such as mining to procure environmental clearance. 3) Providing environmental clearance largely comes under the domain of the centre.

What are the pros and cons of an EIA? ›

Strengths & Weaknesses of EIA
  • Strength: Boosts Efficiency of Project.
  • Strength: Versatile Application Range.
  • Strength: Improves Public Relations.
  • Weakness: Relies on Technical Inputs.
  • Weakness: Costly Time Delays.
  • Weakness: Requires Preparation and Follow-Up.
Apr 29, 2019

What is EIA oil report? ›

The EIA Petroleum Status Report is published every Wednesday by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). The EIA Petroleum Status Report details the existing U.S. crude oil stocks and the inventory levels of refined petroleum products such as gasoline, heating oil, and diesel fuel.

What does the EIA stand for? ›

U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis.

What is the difference between the EIA and EIS? ›

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process for anticipating the effects on the environment caused by a development. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is the document produced as a result of that process.

How is oil formed EIA? ›

Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand, silt, and rock. Heat and pressure from these layers turned the remains into what we now call crude oil or petroleum.

Is EIA a government agency? ›

EIA is the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy.

What are the 5 stages of an EIA? ›

Key stages in the Environmental Assessment process include: screening, alternatives, preliminary assessment, scoping, mitigation, main EIA study and environmental impact statement, review and monitoring (Box 5.1 and Figure 5.1).

What is the EIA in the United States? ›

EIA is the nation's premier source of energy information and, by law, its data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the U.S. government. EIA conducts a comprehensive data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, and energy flows.

How many types of EIA are there? ›

There are three levels of assessment possible under the Act in the form of an environment impact statement (EIS), a public environmental report (PER) or a Development Report (DR).

What is the difference between an EA and an EIS? ›

In a practical sense, EAs function as piecemeal planning due to their limited scope, while EIS's function more as holistic, landscape-level planning.

What are the key elements of EIA explain? ›

The components of EIA include Air Environment, Noise Environment, Water Environment, Biological Environment, Land Environment, Socio-economic and Health Environment, EIA Risk Assessment, and Environment Management Plan.

What is the basic EIA process? ›

The Basic Assessment process entails an assessment of the description of the environmental attributes of the site and an investigation into issues and potential impacts. This is achieved by means of a Public Participation Process (PPP), which involves all Interested and Affected Parties (I&AP's).

What are the laws of EIA? ›

On 27 January 1994, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), Government of India, under the Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, promulgated an EIA notification making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for expansion or modernisation of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of ...


1. EIA Administrator Linda Capuano on the Outlook for Energy and Minerals Markets
2. U.S. EIA's International Energy Outlook 2021
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
3. EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2022 Release
(Bipartisan Policy Center)
4. EIA UPDATE - Disappointing Build Driven by Drop in Imports & Spike in Exports - PART 1
(Primary Vision Network)
5. U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2015
(Center for Strategic & International Studies)
6. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2018
(Center on Global Energy Policy)
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